Today we are going to bediscussing about the actual definition of who a farmer is, the farmingimprovements in technology, the types of farming, the farmers techniques,farming groups, the occupational hazards and when farming evolved in humanlife.
Now let’s start our discussionbut first “Who is actually a farmer”?
Whois a Farmer?
A farmer (also referred to asan Agriculturer) is someone engaged in agriculture, raising living organismsfor food or raw materials. The term normally applies to individuals who do somemixture of raising field plants, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other farmanimals.
A farmer might own the farmed land or may work as a laborer on land owned by others. Meanwhile, in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands.
However, in the not so distantpast, a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of (a plant,crop, and so forth.) by using labor and attention, land or crops or raisesanimals (as livestock or fish).
Farming dates back as far asthe Neolithic, being one of the defining characteristics of that era. Throughthe Bronze Age, the Sumerians had an agriculture specialized labor force by5000–4000 BCE, and heavily depended on irrigation to grow crops. They dependedon their individual groups when harvesting in the spring. The ancient Egyptfarmers farmed, relied and irrigated their water from the Nile.
Animal Husbandry which is thepractice of rearing animals specially for farming purposes has existed forthousands of years. Dogs were domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years inthe past. Goats and sheep were domesticated around 8000 BCE in Asia. Swine orpigs had been domesticated by 7000 BCE in the middle East and China. Theearliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BCE.
FarmingImprovements in Technology
In the U.S. of the 1930s, one farmer could only produce enough meals to feed three other consumers while a modern-day farmer produces sufficient meals to feed well over one hundred human beings.
However, some authors considerthis estimate to be mistaken, as it does not take into account that farmingrequires energy and many other resources which have to be provided byadditional workers, so that the ratio of people fed to farmers is actuallysmaller than 100 to 1.
More distinct terms arecommonly used to denote farmers who raise particular domesticated animals. Forexample, those who raise grazing livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats, andhorses, are called Ranchers (U.S.)or Graziers (Australia & U.k.)or simply called “Stockmen”.
Sheep, goat, and cattle farmers might also be referred to respectively as Shepherds, Goatherds and Cowherds.
The term dairy farmer is applied to the ones engaged primarily in milkproduction whether from cattle, goats, sheep or other milk producing animals. A poultry farmer is one thatconcentrates on raising chickens, turkeys, geese or ducks for either meat, egg,or feather production, or commonly all three.
A person who raises a varietyof vegetables for market can be called a truckfarmer or market gardener. Dirtfarmer is an American colloquial term for a practical farmer, or person whofarms his very own land.
In developed nations, a farmer (as a profession) is usuallydefined as a person with an ownership interest in crops or farm animals, and whoprovides land or management in their production while the people who provideonly labor are most often called farmhands.Also, growers who manage farmland for an absentee landowner, sharing theharvest (or its profits) are referred to as sharecroppers or sharefarmers.
In the context ofagribusiness, a farmer is defined widely and for that reason many individualsnot necessarily engaged in full-time farming can nonetheless legally qualifyunder agricultural policy for various subsidies, incentives, and taxdeductions.
In the context of developingcountries or other pre-industrial cultures, most farmers practice a meagersubsistence agriculture which is a simple organic farming system employing croprotation, seed saving, slash and burn, or other techniques to maximizeefficiency even as meeting the needs of the household or community. Historically,one subsisting in this way may have been known as a peasant.
In developed countrieshowever, someone using such techniques on small patches of land might be calleda Gardener and be considered ahobbyist. Alternatively, one might be driven into such practices with the aidof poverty or ironically against the background of large-scale agribusinessmight become an organic farmer growing for discerning consumers in the nearbyfood market.
Farmers are often members oflocal, regional or national farmers’ unions or agricultural producers’organizations and can exert significant political influence. The Grangemovement in the United States of America was powerful in advancing farmers’agendas, especially in opposition to railroad and agribusiness interests earlyin the 20th century.
The FNSEA very politicallyactive in France, especially pertaining to genetically modified food.Agricultural producers both small and large are represented globally by the InternationalFederation of Agricultural producers (IFAP) representing over 600 millionfarmers through 120 National Farmers’ Unions in 79 countries.
Farmed products might be soldeither to a marketplace, in a farmers’ marketplace, or directly from a farm. Ina subsistence economy, farm products might to some extent be either consumed bythe farmer’s own family or pooled by the community.
There are numerousoccupational hazards for those in agriculture as farming is a particularlydangerous industry. Farmers can come across and be stung or bitten by dangerousinsects and other arthropods, including scorpions, fire ants, bees, wasps, andhornets.
Farmers also work around heavymachinery which can kill or injure them. Farmers can also establish muscle andjoints pains from repeated work.