As a poultry farmer, one basic thing you need never to joke with on your poultry farm is Vaccinating your birds at the right time using the right quantity of vaccine required for the right quantity of birds.
Whether they are Cockerel, Broiler or Layer birds you are raising, they all have their different vaccination programs according to the type.
Meanwhile, adequate care must be taken while vaccinating your birds to avoid what is known as Vaccine Failure.
According to a research carried out recently, some of the major causes of vaccine failure when vaccinating poultry birds include the following:
1) Vaccine Storage and Transport: Always ensure that you buy your vaccines from reliable and reputable Vet. shop which has refrigeration facilities. Live vaccines are normally stored at a temperature of +2c to +8c. They should neither be frozen in a freezer nor stored above +8c.
You need to also bear in mind that when transporting the vaccine, that the same temperature should be maintained on the farm.
Transportation in a flask with ice cubes is good.
2) Check the Vaccine Expiring Date: Ensure to check the expiry date on the vaccine vial before purchase.
3) Don’t Vaccinate Sick Birds: The immune system of a sick bird is weak and cannot satisfactorily withstand a vaccine, let alone develop immunity against the disease.
Note that Vaccination of a Sick Bird can Precipitate the Disease it is Intended to Prevent. Sick birds should be therefore be allowed to recover before vaccination.
4) Vaccines administered via drinking water should be opened under the water into which it is to be mixed. This is because vaccines are normally vaccum sealed. When opened in the air they may draw contaminated air into the container or the vial.
5) Wherever necessary, deworming should be carried out one week prior to vaccination.
6) Do not vaccinate under High Temperature as it affects vaccine potency. Vaccination should be carried out during the cooler periods of the day. Heat sources in brooder house may be temporary turned off except when the weather is too cold.
7) Avoid Stress During Vaccination: Stress is a well-documented and proven immuno-suppressant. During stress the plasma corticosteroid level increases significantly, which result in a severe protein catabolism (break down of protein), resulting in reduced protection of antibodies in the body (poor antibody titres).
Therefore, always use Multiple Vitamins before and after any vaccination.
8) Feed: Feed also play a very important role directly or indirectly in the development of immunity. Birds fed with well-balanced diet will respond better than those that are not properly feed. Ensure that their feeds are analyzed from time to time for the presence of MYCOTOXINS.
9) For administration of the correct dose, the ACTUAL WATER consumption must be known.
10) Ensure to supply sufficient drinkers and even distribution of the drinkers
11) You must discontinue and stop the use of any medications at least 48 hours before the vaccination.
12) Try to use the vaccines as soon as possible the vaccines are reconstituted, delay may lead to decrease in the titre. Time and sequence of vaccination should be accurate.
13) Left over vaccine must be properly buried.
14) Use SKIMMED MILK or colored water stabilizer (CEVAMUNE).
Note: Farmers should avoid the use of any powder milk during vaccination because any powder milk apart from skimmed milk contains 9% or 10% fat, and this fat aggregates on or near the surface of the container (due to the light weight of the fat) where vaccine is mixed, leading to the development of different concentration zones of the vaccine in the container.
15) After adding the SKIMMED milk or Cevamune, wait for 10 minutes for complete chlorine neutralization before opening the Vail’s of the vaccine under the surface of the water.
14) Move quietly in the house to encourage the birds to drink
15) Trained and skilled vaccinators are essential to administer the vaccine. Untrained persons handling the vaccines may result in wastage, improper dosage of vaccine and some birds may remain un-vaccinated.