Prevention and Control Methods of Coccidiosis

Prevention and Control Methods of Coccidiosis

In the past it has been realized that eradication of coccidia isnot realistic and hygienic measures alone are not able to preventinfections. However, if an outbreak of coccidiosis occurs, treatmentvia the drinking water should start as soon as possible.

Today the prevention and control of coccidiosis is based onchemotherapy, using anticoccidial drugs and/or vaccines along withhygienic measures and improved farm management.

Anticoccidial drugs

According to Shirleyand Chapman (2005) the most significant study that had thegreatest impact on control of coccidiosis was that of Delaplaneet al., (1947) which showed that the administration of lowconcentrations of sulphaquinoxaline in the feed effectivelycontrolled the disease.

The rapid development of the broiler industry in the 1950’srequired the urgent availability of anticoccidial drugs. This soonled to intensive activities by several companies to produce a rangeof chemical products that were effective in the control coccidiosis.

However, these products also prevented treated birds from building up any natural immunity and they were not effective enough to kill all exposed coccidia.

The result was that the surviving coccidia quickly became resistant to the products and severe outbreaks of the disease occurred. According to Chapman (1994a) nicarbazin was introduced in 1955 to the USA and was extensively used in broiler production.

In the 1970s several other highly efficacious synthetic drugs wereintroduced but due to the rapid development of drug resistance, theywere withdrawn shortly afterwards. The development of resistance wasdocumented for these anticoccidial chemical drugs (Jeffers,1974a,b;McDougaldet al., 1986). It is likely that resistance has developed to morerecent anticoccidial drugs but this has not been investigated and mayhave gone unrecorded (Chapman,2005).

A major enhancement in coccidiosis control occurred in the 1970’swith the introduction of monensin as the first ionophorecoccidiostat. Introduction of ionophores changed the ability tocontrol coccidiosis, an impact that remains to this day (Shirleyand Chapman, 2005). The effectiveness of ionophore coccidiostatslies in the fact that whilst they kill the majority of the invadingparasites, they permit a small leakage of coccidia enabling a degreeof host immunity to develop.

Resistance to ionophores develops very slowly and there is more of a tendency to increased levels of tolerance. Chapman and Hacker (1994) as well as Mathis (1999) observed a marginal to poor effect of different ionophores to several Eimeria sp.

Since the 1970’s, coccidiostats have been regulated under theFeed Additives Directive 524/70/EEC (EEC,1970; 2004),which has now been replaced by Regulation No 1831/2003/EC (EC,2003; 2007).As such, they have not been subject to veterinary prescriptionstatus, since they are required routinely in the feed of commercialbroilers and turkeys.

Currently several types of anticcocidial drugs are availableincluding synthetic compounds (chemicals), quinal one and certainionophore antibiotics (Table3).In recent years, however, few new drugs have been introduced.

All types of drug used for coccidiosis control are unique; in their mode of action, the way in which parasites are killed or arrested, and the effects of the drug on the growth and performance of the bird. Very few drugs are equally efficacious against all Eimeria species (McDougald, 2003).

Table 3. Some anticoccidial drugsused for prevention in chickens and turkeys in the EU

Zusatzstoffe zur Verhütung der Kokzidiose bei Hühnern und Putenin der EU

Generic name Brand Name

Manufacture
Category of animals Max. Age …(weeks) Conc. (ppm) Withdrawal

time (Days)
Min. Max.
Diclazuril Clinacox

Janssen
Broiler

Pullets

Turkey


16

12
1

1

1
1

1

1
5
Decoquinate Deccox

Alpharma
Broiler 30 50 3
Halofuginone Stenorol

Huvepharma
Broiler

Pullets

Turkey


16

12
2

2

2
3

3

3
5
Lasalocid sodium Avatec

Alpharma
Broiler

Pullets

Turkey


16

12
75

75

90
125

125

125
5
Maduramicin

ammonium
Cygro

Alpharma
Broiler

Turkey


16
5

5
5

5
5
Monensin sodium Elancoban

Elanco
Broiler

Pullets

Turkey


16

16
100

100

60
125

125

100
3
Monensin sodium Coxidin

Huvepharma
Broiler

Turkey


16
100

90
125

100
3
Narasin Monteban

Elanco
Broiler 70 70 1
Narasin/

Nicarbazin
Maxiban

Elanco
Broiler 80 100 5
Robenidine HCl Cycostat

Alpharma
Broiler

Turkey
30 36 5
Salinomycin sodium Sacox

Huvepharma
Broiler

Pullets


12
60

50
70

50
1
Salinomycin sodium Salinomax

Alpharma
Broiler 50 70 1
Semduramicin Aviax

Forum
Broiler 20 25 5

The efficiency of anticoccidial agents can be reduced by drugresistance and management programmes are designed to prevent thisdeveloping, which results in better gut health and feed utilizationby birds. Using a drug rotation, with constant monitoring of theoocysts in the faeces and in the litter, or shuttle programme(ionophore/chemical) seems to be of great value.

Rotation involves changing the product used every 4–6 months.The alternative to a rotation programme is a continuous program wherethe same products are used until a problem develops or until a newproduct is introduced on the market. Rotations are only possible ifdrugs with different mode of action follow each other. On the otherhand, a shuttle programme uses two or more products during thegrow-out period of a flock.

The principle is to use the drug most suited to each phase of thegrow-out, so that one drug is used for the starter period, whilstanother is used during the grower and finisher phase. The drugwithdrawal period is a very important consideration for treatmentsused in finisher feeds (Paeffgenet al., 1988; Smith,1995). A ‘switch’ system can also be used where theanti-coccidial agent is changed at each restocking within anoperation.

A coccidiosis ‘break’ is often an indication of animmunosuppression problem. Concurrent infection withimmunosuppressive diseases such as Marek’s disease may interferewith development of immunity to coccidiosis (Biggset al., 1969) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) may exacerbatecoccidiosis, placing a heavier burden on anticoccidial drugs(McDougaldet al., 1979).

Vaccination

The poultry industry is facing problems of drug resistance, a lackof new anticoccidial products, the susceptibility of turkeys toionophore toxicity and consumer pressure to decrease the use ofantibiotics in animal feed. It is therefore being forced to seekalternative strategies to control Coccidiosis, which has made the useof vaccines more attractive.

Although it has been known for many years that the host exposureto low numbers of coccidia oocysts allows the development of aprotective immunity, live coccidiosis vaccines weren’t used inpoultry until the 1960’s.

There is now a tremendous amount of knowledge about the immuneresponse of chickens to coccidia infections (Lillehoj,2005) and the development and use of vaccines is increasing(Williams,2002; Shirleyand Chapman, 2005; Shirley,2000).

Several different live vaccines have been commercially developedand they are mostly composed of either virulent or attenuatedparasitic strains. Non-attenuated vaccines have been used for manyyears.

Conclusion

Infections with coccidia are often associated with severe economiclosses. Currently the prevention and control of coccidiosis is basedon good hygiene, chemotherapy (Coccidiostats) and immunization.Monitoring programmes are essential for the early recognition strainsdeveloping resistance.

Generally, anticoccidial drugs or vaccination alone is of littlevalue, unless they are accompanied by improvements in all aspects ofmanagement. More attention should be given to improved sanitation andhygiene at the farm level.

Including, all parameters which can improve litter quality suchas; appropriate installation and management of watering systems,providing adequate feeding space, maintaining recommended stockingdensity and supplying adequate ventilation.

References

https://www.european-poultry-science.com/Poultry-coccidiosis-prevention-and-control-approaches,QUlEPTQyMTg3ODEmTUlEPTE2MTAxNA.html

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