Poultry Feed-mill and Formulation of Rations

What is feed mill? Feed mill is a concept that deals with the science of combining different/available animals consumable raw materials in a proportion suitable to animals to enhance balanced rations.

Types of poultry feed mash are:

  1. Chick feed mash

  2. Grower feed mash

  3. Layer feed mash

  4. Broiler starter feed mash

  5. Broiler finisher feed mash

  6. Turkey starter feed mash

  7. Turkey finisher feed mash

Formulation of Rations

Chicks feed-mash has 20% crude proteins, 2640 energy kcal,1.0% of calcium, 0.35% phosphorous, 3.5% fat and 7.5% fiber.

Grower feed-mash are with 16% crude proteins, 2450 energy kcal, 1.0% calcium, 0.35% phosphorous, 3.7% fat and 5% fiber.

Layer feed-mash are with 16.5% crude proteins, 2500 energy kcal, 3.5% calcium, 0.45% phosphorous, 3.7% fat and 7.5% fiber.

Turkey feed-mash: also have the starter and finisher. With the starter feed-mash having a higher protein percentage when compared to broiler starter feed-mash while turkey finisher feed-mash has a bit higher energy level when compared to broiler finisher feed-mash composition.

In a simpler language: Maize, Sorghum, and Cassava chips account for about 40-50% of all feed formulation and often regarded as bulk.

Wheat offal, palm kernel cake, rice bran, spent grains or corn offal always account for about 15-30% and these are called filler.

Bone meal and Oyster shell account for 3.4% in small poultry while bigger ones require 2.5% and 3.5% respectively except for laying birds needing 10%.

blood meal and fish meal are needed more by small birds at about 3.5% while larger birds will take 1-3.5% vitamins and minerals.

Other minerals will only be 0.25%-4%, all these other minerals are regarded as concentrate.

Carbohydrate, Protein and Mineral Sources

Carbohydrate sources: Sorghum


Cassava chips


Protein Sources: Fish meal

Blood meal

Soya beans meal

Groundnut cake meal

Cotton seeds meal

Mineral Sources: Oyster shell

Bone meal

Dicalcium Phosphate

Roughage’s: Rice bran

Wheat offal

Brewers spent grains

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