4 Ways of caring for a Fruit Tree

1) Decide how to prune: If you want the tree to produce fruiting branches low to the ground, you can prune it to knee height and cut back the side branches to one or two buds. This will direct the tree’s energy to producing low branches at the cuts you made. On the other hand, you can lop off the bottom branches if you’d prefer the tree not to have branches low to the ground. 2) Protect the tree from sunburn Many fruit tree growers use a diluted solution of half…

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How to Plant Fruit Trees

Fruit trees are surprisingly easy to grow in a backyard setting, and they yield years’ worth of beautiful spring blooms and plentiful fruit. Apple, peach, plum and pear trees all grow well in a variety of climates. When making your selection, confirm with the nursery that your chosen fruit tree is compatible with the environment that you have selected as its home. 1) Choosing a Tree and Planting Location Buy a grafted fruit tree: Sweet apples, plums, pears and other fruits come from trees that have been grafted so that…

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THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE PLANT-CROP PLANT FORMS

1. Shoots: Shoots target the above-ground business of the plant. Very young plants may possess only simple, undeveloped shoots. As a plant grows, however, these tender shoots develop into stems and leaves. So, stems and leaves are really part of the shoot system. Stems and leaves are so different and specialized that it is worth considering them separately. Overall, the shoot system enables a plant to grow taller to gain access to energy-giving light, and allows the plant to convert that light energy into the chemical energy of sugar. Like…

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Classification of Crops

Classification based on life span of crops/duration of crops: 1.1 One seasonal crops: these are the kind of crops that completes its life cycle in one season. E.g. rice, wheat etc. 1.2. Two seasonal crops: these are those kind crops that complete its life in two seasons. E.g. Cotton, turmeric, gingers 1.3. Annual crops: these are crops that require one full year to complete its life cycle. They complete their life cycle once in a year or a growing season; and during this period, the vegetative and reproductive stages are…

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Crop Plant Forms

1. Monocotyledonous crops: these are   E.g. All cereals & Millets, They usually have narrow and long leaves and they include certain families of grasses: orchids and lilies. Palms e.g. coconut palm, oil palm, raffia palm, and royal palm are the common trees in this group. Maize, guinea corn, millet, rice and wheat are the food crops in this group of plants. Sugar cane is also in this group and it is industrial. 2. Dicotyledonous crops: these are crops that have two cotyledons in the seed. e.g. all legumes &…

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Crop Storage Methods

There are basically two methods of storage: in bags and in bulk. Bags can be stored either in the open air or in warehouses; bulk grain is stored in bins or silos of various capacities. a) Drying Cribs Drying crib can be used for a storage barn but it is too dangerous to leave the grain exposed to insects, birds, and other pests in order to avoid that, when the grain is dry it should be moved to a better storage place. b) Bag Storage Bag storage is a very…

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Processing Enterprises: a source of household income from forest products

For many farmers in the West African region, processing forest and farm tree products provides an essential source of off-farm income. In a farming systems study in Sierra Leone, Engel et al (1984) found that 19% of farmers considered off-farm enterprises their most important occupation in terms of labour input and benefits for the household. Their off-farm activities included palm oil processing, palm wine tapping, fuel-wood collection, hunting, and fishing. There are a large number of different processing activities (see especially Kenge 1987). The products are often of great local…

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The export of forest and tree resources from the humid zone region: Medicinal plants and animals

In comparison with other regions of the world (e.g. Asia and the Pacific) the export of non-timber forest products from the West African humid forest zone is small. Though NTFPs are exported, information on these markets is scanty. Plant medicines and wild animal products are commonly exported within the region. The Cameroonian Forest Service reports that medicinal plants were the most commonly recorded secondary forest products collected from Forestry Department lands. They are primarily collected for the export market, and the most common species are: Prunus africanum (729 tonnes exported…

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Cola Nuts Trade and Production

Cola nuts have been an important trade item in the West African region for many centuries. The cola nut is valued in many cultures as a sign of friendship and peace and is consumed (“broken”) at reunions, during meetings, ceremonies and festivals (see also Section 3.5). It is also the only stimulant allowed to Muslims. For this reason there is a heavy trade of cola from the humid southern regions to the northern arid parts of West Africa. There are several different species of cola which are traded. In southern…

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Fuel-Wood Production and Marketing

Throughout West Africa, fuelwood trade increasingly provides a source of cash income for those with access to urban markets. Generally, there is open market access, many buyers and sellers, few price interventions, and high transportation costs in relation to the fuelwood’s value. However, studies have only recently begun to address issues such as the income earning potential for rural households from fuelwood trade. Kamara (1986) conducted an interesting study on the production and marketing of fuelwood in the Bo and Makeni regions of Sierra Leone where fuelwood provides an important…

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The market for medicinal products e.g. Chewing Sticks

In several market studies, researchers have noted the fact that medicines are commonly sold, especially in markets destined for urban consumers (Kengne 1987, Johnson et al 1976). (See Section 4.7 for international medicine resource export information.) For example, in a study of three urban markets in Cameroon, Champaud (1983) found that there were medicine traders at each market (e.g. 10 in Foumbot market). No market studies, however, assess the extent of the plant medicine market, the traders involved, or the income earned. Plant medicines are generally collected directly by the…

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Gathering and Marketing of other Forest Foods

A great number of forest foods are gathered and sold in the local and regional markets of the region. Semi-wild produce from trees on farm and fallow lands (considered semi-wild as they are not planted but protected by farmers) are being harvested for the market. And cultivation of “wild” species seems to be increasing (see also Sections 5.3, 6.6). For example, a market survey in southern Nigeria revealed that 57 species of wild woody plant products were sold regularly (Okafor 1981). Forest foods are especially valued during the dry season…

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FOREST RESOURCES AS A SOURCE OF CASH INCOME

According to an article published by Fao.org, Forests (and uncultivated trees) provide important sources of income to many rural people in the West African forest zone. Forest products such as bush-meat and fuel-wood are gathered and traded at local and regional markets and are generally destined for urban consumers. Forests also provide the raw materials for artisan and processing activities. Forest products are traded in both local and urban markets, and are sold to meet both rural and urban consumer needs. There are no studies which assess the socio-economic importance…

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Systems of Crop Production

Under the growing of crops, there are different systems in which crops can be cultivated which are usually practiced by farmers, Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer. Important categories of crops include cereals and pseudo-cereals, pulses (legumes), forage, and fruits and vegetables. Specific crops are cultivated in distinct growing regions throughout the world. The most common systems practiced include: Mono-cropping (sole cropping) This…

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